Expect nothing, live frugally on surprise.

Tuesday, December 9, 2008

Terrorism PART 1 ORIGIN

When I say that terrorism is war against civilization, I may be met by the objection that terrorists are often idealists pursuing worthy ultimate aims -- national or regional independence, and so forth. I do not accept this argument. I cannot agree that a terrorist can ever be an idealist, or that the objects sought can ever justify terrorism. The impact of terrorism, not merely on individual nations, but on humanity as a whole, is intrinsically evil, necessarily evil and wholly evil. Like most global citizens i've been also wondering
What terrorist want?
Whats the origin of terrorism?
Why Democratic country like India is on receiving end?
Why it is associated with Islam? Does any religion teaches to kill people?
What is 'Jehad'?
Whats the solution of terrorism?
so i decide to collect some data and start writing on this issue in diffrent parts, also i would like to say here that its not against any relgion, country or citizen. Its just one effort to find out the origin, solution and affects of terrorism. IN THIS POST I AM TRYING TO FIND OUT THE ORIGIN OF TERRORISM
History of Terrorism
Afghanistan - The Origin Of Terrorism?
Terrorism in India: Where the problem lies?

The first problem with "terrorism" is that the term itself is subjective in nature. It, along with terms such as "fanaticism", "guerilla warfare", "fundamentalism", "extremism", "rebels", etc., are preconditioned political terms applied in a manner that satisfies the needs of the user. Within a modern context, the term "terrorism" has come to mean something negative, whereas the concept of guerilla fighters, freedom fighters, etc., often carries a positive connotation. unfortunately, the ability to utilize such terms interchangeably, and to automatically apply preconceived concepts through the application of such terms, allows groups to categorize organizations with a few words. A second problem is the limited scope in which terrorism is defined. Numerous history books and studies fail to recognize the application of terrorism prior to the French Revolution. According to many historians, this is the origin of terrorism. In actuality, the concept and application of terrorism existed prior to man's first recordings. To classify terrorism as a modern phenomenon fails to recognize its role throughout humankind's history. This can be a dangerous error; the exclusion of terrorism from history prevents us from adequately studying its causes and, ultimately, its prevention. A third problem with terrorism is that it is often associated with an "extreme form of violence."(2)However, terrorism can take place in forms other than violence. Especially within a modern context, the face of terrorism is rapidly changing. From passive resistance, to technological and economic terrorism, terrorism no longer necessarily requires the spilling of blood to be effective. (2) The Morality of Terrorism,A fourth problem with terrorism is that it is not a catch-all phrase. It can be divided into two distinct categories -- namely, terrorism of the state and terrorism of the individual. The tactics employed by both, although utilizing many of the same principles, are distinctly different in their execution.a. Terrorism of the individual is normally focused on disrupting a government to the point that individual liberties are gradually rescinded and a more authoritarian regime is put into place, which as history has shown, is more vulnerable to uprising and will aide the terrorist in achieving revolution. Terrorism of the individual also aims at drawing international attention to its plight, and to diverting resources of the state until they can no longer adequately cope and thus become weaker.b. Terrorism of the state, in contrast, seeks to quiet the masses and harshly suppress any rebellion. Its supreme goal is unchecked authoritative power.For the purposes of this paper, a more linear, non-traditional definition for terrorism will be employed, focusing on terrorism of the individual. We will deal with the various terms in relation to progression. Terrorism is the first stage of rebellion. It is an act of unconventional aggression with the goal of sending a strong political message to the recipient.From terrorism, if properly executed, emerges a guerilla army capable of guerrilla warfare. From guerilla warfare emerges a true rebellion and, in the end, revolution. This is by no means an all-encompassing definition, but will adequately satisfy the needs of this paper.

As previously mentioned, it is a common historical fallacy to limit terrorism to events of the 18th century and beyond. From the earliest of times, man has engaged in acts of terrorism and rebellion. Josephus, the famous Roman historian, tells us in his writings of the Sicarii and Zealots who "successfully induced a massive revolt against Rome in 66-70 CE." In a vivid account he notes that When the countryside had been cleared of bandits, another type sprang up in Jerusalem known as the Sicarii who committed murders in broad daylight in the heart of the city. The festivals were their special seasons, when they would mingle with the crowd, carrying short daggers concealed under their clothing, with which they stabbed their enemies. Then, when they fell, the murderers joined in the cries of indignation and, through this plausible behavior, where never discovered.The first to be assassinated … was Jonathan the high-priest, after his death there were numerous daily murders. The panic created was more alarming than the calamity itself; everyone, as on the battlefield, hourly expected death. Men kept watch at a distance on their enemies and would not trust even their friends when they approached. Yet, even while their suspicions were aroused and they were on guard, they fell; so swift were the conspirators and so crafty at eluding detection.Numerous other historical examples exist, similar in nature, ranging from the Islamic Assassins (Ismai'ilis), to the American Revolution. What is important to note, however, is that terrorism is an integral part of history. This is an important point, because failure to recognize the role of terrorism will limit our study of it. Throughout the majority of history, terrorism has often taken the face of violence. The Russian Bolsheviks, French Revolutionaries, Ismai'ilis and numerous other groups are all fair representations of using violence to accomplish their means. As David C. Rapoport notes in his book The Morality of Terrorism, the use of violence, or more specifically "atrocities", is one of the most effective means of terrorism, because it fulfills three key aims :
1. Produce pure terror or paralyzing fear The Sicarii assassinations serve as an excellent example of this aim. By inflicting overwhelming fear on a target audience, the terrorist is able to cripple the movements of its targets, and even society at large. According to David Rapoport: It is most effective when directed against specific critical groups. In the 20th century, for example, successful terrorist movements following the example of Michael Collins, (IRA leader after World War I) paralyzed the police early usually by systematic assassination policies
2. Publicity to gain sympathy This is a critical component of terrorism, because it satisfies one of the Principles of Terrorism, which shall be discussed in a later section. The ability to gain sympathy helps the terrorist to create support locally and abroad. Without public sympathy, it is extremely difficult to progress from the terrorism stage to the guerilla warfare stage. Likewise, without international sympathy, the acquirement of arms, etc. is virtually impossible.
3. Stimulation of indiscriminate hostility The stimulation of indiscriminate hostility is the cornerstone of Miraghella's revolutionary manual, Minimanual of the Urban Guerilla. By enraging the establishment to the point that it begins to violently attack the passive populace, it is able to garner the support of a horrified society, that otherwise may not have sided with the guerillas. Miraghella notes : (6 Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla. )The people refuse to collaborate with the government, and the general sentiment is that this government is unjust, incapable of solving problems, and that it resorts simply to the physical liquidation of its opponents……watching the guerillas, the people now understand that it is a farce to vote in any elections which have as their sole objective guaranteeing the survival of the dictatorship and covering up its crimes. Attacking wholeheartedly this election farce and the so- called "political solution", which is so appealing to the opportunists, the urban guerillas must become even more aggressive and active, resorting without pause to sabotage, terrorism, expropriations, assaults, kidnappings, executions, etc. The role of the urban guerrilla, in order to win the support of the population, is to continue fighting, keeping in mind the interested of the people and heightening the disastrous situation, within which the government just act. These are the conditions, harmful to the dictatorship, which permit the guerrillas to open rural warfare in the middle of an uncontrollable urban rebellion. Despite such defined aims, terrorism in and of itself has been quite ineffective. Seldom has terrorism resulted in noteworthy change unless it is able to progress to stage two, i.e. guerilla warfare.A survey of terrorism within a historical context brings about three noteworthy generalities:1) Almost all terrorist movements have failed under truly totalitarian regimesFew, if any, examples exist of a terrorist movement that succeeded under totalitarianism. The brutality and swift violence of such regimes quickly debilitates any such efforts, effectively preventing them from progression to the guerilla warfare stage.2) Almost all terrorist campaigns have failed to overthrow any truly stable democratic country Almost all terrorist campaigns fail to garner adequate support in truly democratic societies. As the oppression of the regime decreases, so often does the popular support for revolution. The few cases in which terrorists have been successful, within a democratic framework, were under newly found democratic states that had not yet achieved stability.Major General R.L. Clutterbuck, an acknowledged expert on terrorism, notes that :
It is interesting that to my knowledge no Marxist or anarchist revolution has yet overthrown an established pluralist [democratic] society. They have sometimes overthrown one that is in the process of becoming pluralist, as in the French Revolution, but not an established one. It always starts with an authoritarian regime, or, if it had started as a pluralist or liberal society, it turns into an authoritarian one first.3) In almost all successful revolutions, the moderates are quickly overthrown by extremistsThe majority of terrorist campaigns begin in the face of a perceived injustice. If a terrorist movement is able to garner popular support, and progress ultimately to the revolution stage, it is normally composed of both moderates and extremists. Once the revolution is successful, the majority of the time moderates will take power, only to be overthrown by extremists before true stability is achieved. Major General Clutterbuck states : (8 Ibid., pg. 60 )The historical pattern can be depicted by reference to the French Revolution, with the Bourbons being overthrown by an alliance of moderates such as Mirabeau and Talleyrand, with extremists like Robespierre. When the apparatus of the state is dismantled without being replaced by another, we have a situation in which the extremists are then able to oust the moderates.But once in power the extremists (like Robespierre) find that they have to discipline by the use of terror. This inevitably leads to some kind of dictatorship; whether it is in the name of the Left, led by Stalin, or of the Right, led by Napoleon, is really immaterial. The same pattern can be seen either way. In the same way in Russia, Kerensky was ousted by Lenin and Trotsky, and the terror led to Stalin. We saw the same pattern in Portugal. The authoritarian regime was overthrown by Spinola and some other…liberals…The study of the history of terrorism is a vital component for the success and/or failure of terrorist campaigns and counter- terrorist initiatives. Both Ben Gurion and Menachem Begin, leaders of the Jewish Haganah and Irgun respectively, valued the lessons that history offers.Fearing that history would repeat itself, they carefully restrained their forces from fighting each other, fearful of another Jew-on-Jew war, which would distract them from their ultimate goal of forcing the withdrawal of the British. Their efforts were successful, and the British eventually withdrew. Their success, in a large part, can be attributed to their study and knowledge of history.
Although knowledge of the history of terrorism is imperative to develop effective terrorist and counter-terrorist policies, the "art" of terrorism is an ever-evolving system. Recognizing the victories and defeats of the past, terrorists continue to modify their craft, ever-seeking new, more effective ways to achieve their ends. Within the past few centuries, seven distinct features of terrorism have evolved that go beyond simple violence.
1) Passive resistance The tactic of passive resistance does not at first appear useful to terrorists. However, it is an extremely effective tactic that has a very set role within terrorist movements. Miraghella devotes an entire section of his manual to strikes and work interruptions. By orchestrating targeted forms of non-violent resistance, which are capable of crippling a countries infrastructure, transportations systems, etc., the terrorist can weaken the intended target. This tactic was used in Brazil during the campaigns of the 1960s. Likewise, it was used by resistance movements during WWII to disrupt the flow of Germany arms and supplies via the European railways. It is noteworthy, however, that this tactic cannot be used in isolation against an authoritarian regime. It must be only one of several varying tactics in order to be useful.
2) Playing to the Media The concept of playing to the media has grown with the spread of newspapers, TV and radios. Terrorists can now affect the emotions of millions of viewers in hundreds of countries by simply tailoring their message for the media. The Palestinian intifada is an excellent example of this tactic. Although the intifada started as a grass roots movement, groups such as the PLO quickly attempted to assume leadership, because they saw the public relations value of such a movement. When Palestinian children are shown on American TV throwing rocks at Israeli soldiers, only to be countered by artillery and gunships, American sentiment is quickly swayed. Use of this tactic continues to bring about harsh condemnation of Israeli response methods. Although the Palestinians are capable of arming their people, the intifada is much more effective in discrediting the Israelis and gaining support for the Palestinians.
3) Technology Perhaps the most notable advancement in terrorism has been the introduction of sophisticated technology. As technological capabilities increase, the required human resources decrease. In the past, a large group of individuals was required to pull off a successful campaign. Now, one individual with the proper equipment can achieve the same degree of mayhem that previously may have required 100 individuals for the same effect. The introduction of the computer has further enabled covert communications between terrorist organizations, and allowed groups to conduct cyber attacks on key electronic targets from remote locations. A terrorist in Libya, equipped with a laptop and modem, can now wage war against US Department of Defense networks. As technology progresses, so will terrorist capabilities.
4) Economic Terrorism Although not a new tactic, economic terrorism is beginning to gain favor among terrorist groups. A hallmark of the American Revolution is the Boston Tea Party, in which large amounts of tea shipments - a staple for the British economy - were dumped into the sea. Its overall contribution to the American Revolution is questionable, but its PR value is not.Currently, in Israel, a progressive campaign of economic warfare is taking place. Israeli soldiers continue to destroy olive tree crops in Lebanon and Palestine, delivering a harsh blow to the Arab economy and mentality. Through its policy of multi-containment, the Jews have separated areas such as the West Bank and Gaza Strip into multiple sectors, preventing movement in between them. The effect has been devastating, essentially ruining the Palestinian economy by forbidding Palestinians to go to work, school, etc.Islamic terrorists in Egypt have utilized this tactic by attacking tourists. The result has been a sharp decline in the tourism industry, which is a cornerstone of the Egyptian economy.
5) Transnational Targets In the past, it was quite difficult to attack targets internationally. In order to attack the Chinese, terrorists most likely had to operate inside China. Colonial powers were easier to target, but still could only be reached within their native or occupied lands. In light of global economic expansion and transnational treaties, it is now much easier to attack targets abroad. The US can be attacked by bombing its embassies in Nigeria, or ramming its ships in the UAE. Israeli businessmen can be assassinated in London. German companies can be attacked in Japan.This is a key progression, because it allows terrorists access to targets that may otherwise not exist. The chances of smuggling a bomb into the US are slim. The ability to smuggle a bomb into Nigeria, however, and still attack the US is much more appealing.
6) Transnational Cooperation A byproduct of global expansion is that terrorist organizations are also beginning to cooperate on the international level. Central Asian terrorists can be trained in Afghanistan, only to be recruited by Chechnyan rebels.(10) Palestinian terrorists have received training from the Russians, asylum in Africa, arms from the IRA, and logistical support from European terrorist groups in attacking Israeli targets. The terrorist networks continue to grow more and more complex and intertwined, because cooperation is needed to adequately facilitate the flow of arms, equipment, people, training and money between the seven continents.
7) Increased funding Terrorists of today are receiving vast amounts in international funding. The IRA has been the recipient of funds from Irish Americans. The Jewish terrorist groups, Haganah and Irgun, which emerged shortly after WWII, had countless funds sent to them from European and American Jews. The Arab states are avid supporters of Palestinian movements, donating huge sums of cash to their cause. With such funds at their disposal, terrorist groups are able to buy more sophisticated equipment, training and identification, and even purchase the protection of governments themselves. These emerging features of contemporary terrorism are important because they help to form the basis for the Principles of Terrorism.
Mao Tse-Tung laid down three stages of development to achieve revolution, namely the organization stage, the guerilla warfare stage and the mobile war stage.This model was followed by individuals such as Ho Chi Minh, and was quite effective during its time. Unfortunately, within a modern context this simple three-stage approach is no longer applicable. The fundamentals are still present, but for contemporary purposes some adjustments must be made. In order for terrorism to progress from its inception to the ultimate goal of revolution, five general Principles of Terrorism become apparent. Understanding these principles allows for suitable development of counter-terrorism policies.
1) Grassroots Support According to Mao Tse-Tung, "the guerrilla is the fish and the people are the sea." Mao was quick to recognize the importance of the general population in any terrorist campaign. For terrorists to be truly effective, they must have the support of the general population both for their cause and for their tactics. A terrorist group that fails to gain popular support will not be able to progress to the stage of guerilla warfare, because there will not be enough people to fill its ranks. Such is the case of the right-wing militants in America. Timothy McVeigh and the like fail to draw the support of the general population, and therefore will never be successful in their ultimate aims. Likewise, a terrorist group that has popular support, but whose actions are not supported, will most likely not achieve victory. The Algerian Islamic extremists had huge popular support in their campaign against the Algerian government, which they quickly lost after pursuing a campaign of slaughtering entire villages. (It is important to note here that, based on the definition of terrorism provided at the beginning of the paper, the success of terrorism is measured in its ability to progress to the second stage of guerilla warfare. To claim that Timothy McVeigh was successful as a terrorist because he succeeded in the Oklahoma bombing would be incorrect based on the current definition. Although that isolated attack was successful, the ultimate goals of the right-wing militants have not been achieved, and neither has the progression to guerrilla warfare. The same would apply to most terrorist attacks.)
2) Intelligence Accurate intelligence is vital for any strategic attack, and the same principle applies for terrorism. Terrorists who accidentally attack a hospital, rather than a military base, will quickly lose support locally and internationally. Accurate, on- time intelligence is vital to carry out any mission effectively.
3) Propaganda Propaganda is critical for gaining support. A terrorist organization that does not advertise its cause will find few followers. Propaganda, however, must be focused both internally and externally. Support from the local population, but condemnation from the international community, will do little to ensure success. Perhaps this is one of the largest failures in regards to the PLO. Although campaigns such as the intifada have been successful in gaining international sympathy, on a whole they have been ineffective in gaining support outside of the Arab world. The Jews, in contrast, have been extremely successful in propagating their views to the point that it dominates the Western media. This is largely a logistical and/or public relations failure on behalf of the Palestinians, for they have failed to gain a public voice to the international community.
4) Technology As previously discussed, technology is rapidly enabling the terrorist communities. As countries such as the US become more and more reliant on technology, they will be more susceptible to terrorist attacks. Stratfor, a private intelligence corporation, noted in a recent analysis that :The United States is the most electronically integrated and dependent country in the world, while many of its potential adversaries have yet to be extensively wired. Ironically, the expanding information battlefield favors nations that do not rely on information technology for their national well-being. In fact, cyber warfare could allow a relatively weak country to damage a much stronger enemy. The use of cyber warfare has taken the spotlight during the recent Palestinian uprisings. Both Jews and Palestinians alike have launched extensive attacks on their counterpart's electronic infrastructures. Through Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, virus propagation, etc. both sides have been extremely successful in their endeavors. The Palestinians managed to bring down the Bank of Israel, the Israeli governments main website, and even disrupt the operations of Israelis largest ISP. The Jews have had similar victories. An inverse relationship exists between the sophistication of technology and the amount of people required to perform a mission. One individual, armed with a laptop or nuclear device can achieve significant results - something that previously required large armies. Most importantly, the technology of the terrorists must be on par with the targets' technology. Bare-foot guerilla fighters attacking a government who is willing to use biological agents will most likely not succeed. Terrorists armed with knives will do little in the face of automatic machine guns. Since terrorist organizations are relatively small, they must have advanced technology to outbalance their limited numbers.
5) International Support The final principle is international support. In the modern world, international support can be key for the success or failure of a revolution or terrorist campaign. Although the Russians, after their invasion of Afghanistan, regarded Afghani rebels as terrorists, the Afghanis had the support of the Western community and were able to receive arms and training.In contrast, the Taliban have succeeded in capturing the majority of Afghanistan, but have failed to gain international recognition and are therefore politically and economically isolated. It is questionable whether the Chechnyans, if they achieve victory, would be recognized internationally due to the intricate politics involved. Failure to receive international support and recognition could ultimately lead to their defeat. For the Palestinians, the voice of the people was not heard for many years because the world refused to recognize the PLO. International support is a critical component of success. Terrorists that gain internal victory, but neglect to gather international support, may never truly succeed.


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